How To Insert New Output Style On Cite While Write APA Citation Format – Mastering In-Text Citations

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APA Citation Format – Mastering In-Text Citations

APA citation format is a set of formal rules written by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources when writing research papers for any of the social science disciplines.

The most recent set of guidelines can be found in the sixth edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual, published in July 2009. The purpose of the manual is to provide a set of formal conventions that ensure clarity of communication, aid reader understanding , avoid plagiarism and create accurate reference citations.

The Basic

When writing a research paper, APA style requires that citations be located both in the body text and in a formal reference list section of the document. This article provides some general guidelines for how in-text citations should be formatted. For a more in-depth explanation, see pages 169-179 of the Publications Handbook.

For any citation in the text (in the body of the report) there must be an entry in the reference list, and the same goes for the reverse as well: any entry in the reference list must match a citation in the text.

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s surname and the year of publication of the source document must appear in the text as (Richards, 2001). A fuller citation should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

When writing your report, if you only refer to an idea from another source, but do not directly cite the material, you should only cite the author and year of publication in your in-text citation.

In-text citation format

  • Always capitalize the author’s name and initials: P. Smith
  • If referring to the title of a font, capitalize any word with more than four letters: Writing For Change. Note that this differs from the corresponding entry in your References list, in that entry only the first word is capitalized: Writing for change.
  • Always capitalize the first word after a colon or hyphen: The Search For Life: The Case for Martian Water.
  • Always capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Mars: in depth
  • Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books and documentaries: Space Exploration in the Future
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter papers, such as journal or magazine articles: “Saturn’s Rings of Dust”

If you are quoting directly from a work, include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (precede the page number with a “p”). Enter the citation by including the author’s last name followed by the date of publication. between parentheses.

For example: According to Smith (2001), “astronauts often had difficulty managing stress during flight training” (p. 44).

If the quotation is more than 40 words, place the text in an independent block of typed lines and omit the quotation marks. The long quote should start on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Subsequent lines must maintain the same margin, maintaining double spacing at all times. The referenced page number should appear after the closing punctuation mark.

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another source just cite the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. Including a page number reference is preferred, but not required.

In short, formatting in-text citations in a research paper using APA citation format is not difficult once you know the rules of circulation. With enough practice, citation formatting should become second nature.

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