How To Format An Apa Style Paper In Word 2010 Biogas Fueling the Olympic Torch

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Biogas Fueling the Olympic Torch

China is playing a leading role in the area of ​​biogas, processes by which we can turn our waste, animal waste and food into a high-quality, usable commodity. The topic of using faecal matter as a source of energy varies from taboo in some societies to widespread acceptance and use in others. In China, it falls into the latter category. Here’s what China’s National Development and Reform Commission has on the biogas books.

In China alone there are a billion and a half people with just as many livestock, poultry and garbage dumps that provide methane daily. It is difficult for China to avoid the idea of ​​turning something that has been discarded into a commodity for electricity generation. China plans to have an installed capacity of bioenergy projects reaching 5.5 million kilowatts by 2010, but rising to 30 million kilowatts by 2020, a 600 percent increase over the next 11 years.

Biogas is a combustible mixture of gases produced by microorganisms when livestock manure and other biological waste is allowed to ferment in the absence of air in closed containers. The main constituents of biogas are methane (60 percent), carbon dioxide (35 percent), and small amounts of water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Biogas is mainly used as a fuel, like natural gas, while the digested mixture of liquids and solids “bio-sludge” and “bio-sludge” are mainly used as organic fertilizer for crops. Chinese companies are now finding many other uses for biogas, bio-slurries and bio-sludges in China.

This development touches on an important aspect of Peak Oil: in a peak oil world there will be less fertilizer production and therefore higher fertilizer prices, which means higher agricultural costs which must be reflected in higher food prices. You could open Pandora’s Box when you explain how the agricultural, transportation and processed food industries depend on oil. Increased transportation costs to move food from the field to the factory to the plate. Fertilizers and pesticides rely on natural gas and oil-based chemicals for their production, and agricultural machinery runs on liquid fossil fuels. The simplest equation is: Higher oil prices = Higher food costs.

China began to use biogas digesters in earnest in 1958 in a campaign to exploit the multiple functions of biogas production, which solved the problem of manure disposal and improved hygiene. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Chinese government realized the value of this natural resource in rural areas and this was the first important step in modernizing its agriculture. Six million digesters have been installed in China, which has become the biogas capital of the world incorporating the ‘China Dome’ digester which is still in use today, especially for small-scale domestic use. China’s National Rural Biogas Construction Plan 2003-2010 is to increase the households using biogas by 31 million more to a total of 50 million, so the usage rate would reach 20% of the total rural households.

By the end of 2006, the total number of families using biogas reached 22 million, with a total annual biogas production of about 8.5 billion cubic meters and had built biogas wells for 22 million households in rural areas and provided more than 5,200 large and big medium-sized biogas projects based on livestock and poultry farms. Typical eight cubic meter biogas wells are capable of providing 80 percent of the energy needed to cook a family of four, according to the Ministry of Agriculture’s Energy and Zoology Division. By 2020, about 300 million rural people will use biogas as their primary fuel.

During the current 10th Five-Year Plan, China is developing 2,200 power grid biogas engineering projects for waste from intensive livestock and poultry, treating more than 60 million tons of manure per year, adding to 137,000 digesters installed to treat sewage. . According to the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Geography, the total annual production of manure and night soil could theoretically generate about 130 billion cubic meters of methane, which is equivalent to 93 million tons of coal and 80 percent of industrial wastewater is also they can use to produce methane. . The number of large-scale power plants is expected to increase to 30,000 by 2030, a 15-fold increase.

As the idea of ​​cleaning up the environment begins to gain traction in China, the treatment of sludge from urban and industrial wastewater treatment that has traditionally been dumped into landfills, oceans and waterways is taking center stage with a catchy campaign.” Recycle waste into a resource.” The Chinese central government is showing great interest in medium- and large-scale biogas plants and agricultural and agro-industrial biomass integrated with waste treatment plants to reduce water pollution.

To facilitate the use of biogas, the government had established biogas technical training courses in Shanxi Province and in 2005 trained 6,000 farmers, 4,000 of whom obtained the National Biogas Technician Certificate. The Ministry of Agriculture which administers the Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute (BIOMA) also operates an international training and research center in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Farmers in Yunnan province who graduated from the course are experimenting with a “four-in-one” biogas plant that incorporates a pig and a domestic latrine to provide feedstock. greenhouse to increase plant yield.

Biogas feedstock programs across China are just beginning to use industry waste from other sources; alcohol production and paper mills. The Tianguan Distillery, which consumes two million tons of shop-worn grains a year to produce denatured alcohol, is now recycling distillery waste to produce biogas in a 30,000 cubic meter digester, which supplies more than 20,000 households or 20 percent of Nanyang City. population

Hongzhi Alcohol Corporation, located in Mianzhu, Sichuan Province, which is the largest alcohol factory in southwest China, uses its industrial organic wastewater, sewage and garbage to produce biogas. Mianzhu City treats 98 percent of municipal wastewater, including hospital wastewater, through digesters with a total capacity of 10,000 cubic meters.

Chenming Paper Co., which generates 300 tons of sludge per day, is adding its own biogas start-up program using pulp waste. The same is true of intensive livestock farming on many large and medium-sized livestock and poultry farms in the suburbs of cities. China’s power generation is starting to transform into local power generation for local residents from local industry using local feedstock, which is a model we need to get used to in a world of high energy prices: local production, local consumption.

As our globalized distant point of manufacture, the lifestyle of the long supply chain changes year by year with the decreasing availability of crude oil, known as “Peak Oil”, as a world we will need to find substitutes for crude oil to supply basic chemicals for the industrial and manufacturing processes. Direct use of biogas for cooking or for cogeneration of electricity and heat is particularly feasible when the biogas is used at or near the generation site. Biogas methane can also be used to make methanol, an organic solvent and an important chemical to produce formaldehyde, chloromethane, organic glass and composite fiber. Good quality fertilizers and generated electricity are additional bonuses.

Finally, biogas can be used to extend the storage of fruits and grains. An atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide inhibits metabolism, so it reduces the formation of ethylene in fruits and grains, prolonging the storage time, and the same atmosphere kills insects, molds and harmful bacteria that cause diseases.

My mind sees a future where food storage will be in local communities as the just-in-time delivery system will run into problems as fuel becomes more expensive and disposable incomes decrease around the world. I envision a return to a weekly or fortnightly bulk dry goods delivery system that will require local communities to store their own grains and bulk food using biogas to keep pests and rodents out of the food supply. The small shipments we are used to today will have to be restructured into a bulk delivery system, the concept of a box from a half-world company stored on a store shelf should diminish with higher crude prices. Food from supermarkets and hypermarkets packed in small individual boxes, bags or wrapped in plastic will have their own set of delivery and manufacturing issues. Which gives biogas an advantage by offering solutions to two likely side effects in the future due to the continued rise in crude oil prices, food storage and fertilizers.

What I’ve never heard mentioned is a backup fertilizer system. In many countries, we are required by law to have backup batteries and generators for critical electrical systems in the event of a power failure. Is there a backup fertilizer system for our food production in the event of oil shortages or lasting supply disruptions? Biogas production can provide some protection. It’s not an Olympic step, but it’s a step.

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