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Trial-and-Error Learning in Animals
Think of the word “intelligence.” What does it mean that an animal is intelligent? How can you tell if animals are really intelligent? After all, animals can’t talk and don’t use words. They cannot express ideas or learn history or spelling.
Even so, animals are capable of many things. Maybe your goldfish swims to the surface looking for food when you approach his tank. Or your cat may ring the doorbell when it wants to enter the house. Many other animals can even do tricks and tasks. Circuses are filled with dancing bears, playful sea lions, struggling elephants and ponies. Such behavior is often mistakenly perceived as signs of intelligence. As you will see, playing tricks is not truly a sign of intelligence. Intelligence is the ability to reason. It is the sudden flash of an idea, or the ability to solve a new problem directly and also using previous experiences. Performing tricks and tasks does not require the ability to think, reason or have ideas.
Tricks can be mastered through special types of learning. One way to learn is through trial and error. Another is through conditioned responses. It is important to understand how this learning behavior works. Then we will be able to understand the differences between tricks and truly intelligent behavior.
One of the most difficult problems for psychologists is figuring out ways to test intelligence. Conditioned responses are not signs of intelligence. However, they are part of an animal’s behavior, so they can help psychologists compare the differences between different animals’ learning styles. Animals are also conditioned in other ways. They can learn to avoid a place or object by receiving a mild, harmless electric shock. Some may even be forced to change their normal behavior. Almost all animals from the flatworm up can be conditioned. Another type of learning takes place through trial and error. The most famous type of trial and error method is the maze.
Labyrinths are all based on the same idea; that is, an animal placed in an entrance must find the exit. As you move forward, you encounter a series of branches. The animal must make a choice at each branch or fork. If you choose the wrong one, you reach a dead end. Then you have to go back to take the other road. After several times the animal can run through the maze without making mistakes. The reward at the end is a piece of food for the hungry animal. Mazes can be very easy or very difficult, depending on the goals of the psychologists. Experiments have shown that ants can master very complicated mazes, as can frogs, turtles, rats, cockroaches, and crabs.
Another way to study trial and error learning is to place an animal in a box. The food is placed outside and the animal can only get to the food by opening a door. Then the animal must open the same door to re-enter the box. In both cases the problem is the same: to discover a lock to open a door. It has been discovered that raccoons can learn to pick very complicated locks. Monkeys can also open locks in a special order, but are sometimes difficult to work with due to their moodiness. At first, humans took as long as monkeys to open locks in a special order. But once they learned, they were much quicker to open them. The reason humans took so long is quite simple. There is no way to figure out the order by looking at the locks because learning the order is a form of trial and error learning. Insight or reasoning doesn’t help here any more than it does in the mazes. So in the early stages of learning by trial and error, humans weren’t fast either.
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