How To Do Table Of Contents In Word Apa Style Definition of "Halogen-free" Leaves Many Materials Incorrectly Classified: The Florine Loophole

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Definition of "Halogen-free" Leaves Many Materials Incorrectly Classified: The Florine Loophole

Although chlorine and bromine are widely recognized, reported and restricted as halogens in many applications, it is noteworthy that fluorine, iodine and astatine (other halogens in Group 17/VIIA in the Periodic Table of the Elements) are not restricted in the accepted definitions of the industry of “halogen free”. Depending on the industry considering the “halogen-free” designator, chlorine and bromine are the only halogens restricted, and then at levels below 900-1,000 parts per million.

In the case of fluorine used in plastics, many anti-drip agents used in “halogen-free” plastic compounds, including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), better known as Teflon®, contain fluorine, and anti-drip agents have been used in the range 0.1-1.4 % by weight. Some of these products may contain significant amounts of fluorine that exceed the level normally accepted by IEC 61249-2-21 as content limits set for other halogens (0.09% or 900 parts per million). In other cases, fluorinated salts may be formulated into plastic products at typical levels of 800 parts per million, especially plastic parts produced from polycarbonate, to impart flame retardant properties while the product is labeled “halogen-free”.

In addition, it is noteworthy that fluorinated polymer resins incorporated or allied to a plastic compound also do not contribute to the permanence of a finished polymer “halogen-free” due to the omission of fluorine from the list of considered halogens. Such fluorinated resins that could be incorporated or alloyed to impart improved electrical, flammability and processing properties include:

polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF),

or ethylenetrifluoroethylene (ETFE)

or copolymers of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)

or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)

The apparent omission of fluorine, a halogen used in polymer and plastic additives that are later regularly combined with other plastics to impart flame resistance and other properties, is primarily due to testing methodology and limitations in fluorine detection. The test methods used to detect bromine and chlorine do not have the ability to detect fluorine, and as such fluorine is not detected or reported even though it is also a halogen. Without significant direction on testing methodology, it is unlikely that regulators will consider total halogen content in the near future; however, environmentalists have become aware of fluoride’s toxicology and potential human effects in recent developments related to groundwater contamination by fluorinated compounds and the potential effects of thermal decomposition of PTFE.

Recent concerns about the potential toxicological effects of groundwater contamination by some fluorinated precursors and byproducts, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the United States, as well as potential human toxicological effects from contact with PTFE-containing products produced by DuPont , better known as Teflon. ®, could prompt a review of this apparent dual status for halogen materials used in industry. According to the environmental research organization Environmental Working Group:

“…over the past five years, the multibillion-dollar industry of “perfluorochemicals” (PFCs), which underpins such world-famous brands as Teflon®, Stainmaster®, Scotchgard® and Gore-Tex®, has emerged as a regulatory regulator. priority to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientists and officials The PFC family is characterized by chains of carbon atoms of varying lengths, to which fluorine atoms are strongly attached, producing essentially indestructible chemicals that until recently if they thought they were biologically inert. . . Now nobody thinks so.”

Since 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has conducted a significant review of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). [US EPA PFOA Factsheet] In 2000, the US EPA mandated the removal of PFOS, the chemical used for decades as an active ingredient in 3M’s popular Scotchgard® stain and water repellent. Around the same time, 3M stopped making the related perfluorochemical PFOA.

Throughout 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency had PFOA under intense regulatory scrutiny due to reports of groundwater contamination. PFOA is the most widely used in the manufacture of PTFE. A major brand of PTFE under scrutiny is Dupont Teflon®. Due to the findings of the toxicity studies and the presence of PFOA in the blood of more than 90 percent of the US population, the US Environmental Protection Agency is continuing its review of human toxicity studies and potential health effects .

In December 2005, Dupont reached a $16.5 million settlement with the US Environmental Protection Agency in an enforcement action related to the chemical compound PFOA; this settlement follows a US$107 million civil settlement in March 2005 in matters related to the alleged PFOA contamination of local drinking water by Dupont in West Virginia, USA.

In 2006, the issue of PFOA and PFOS content in plastics and other materials will be considered by many states. In California (USA), a coalition of United Steelworkers (USW), Sierra Club, Environmental Law Foundation, Environment California, US Public Interest Research Group (PIRG), Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and Environmental Working Group ( EWG) filed a petition to list PFOA as “a chemical known to the state to cause cancer” under the California Drinking Water and Toxics Enforcement Act of 1986, commonly known as Proposition 65. If adopted, the finding would require product information labels based on specific toxicological findings under California Right to Know requirements. Additionally, the Senate Environment Committee considered a preliminary report on perfluorochemical contamination in Minnesota in February 2006.

In April 2006, sixteen claims in a $5 billion class action lawsuit were moved to a Federal Court in Des Moines, Iowa, USA. Court documents allege that Teflon® manufacturers withheld information about the chemicals used to make Teflon® chemicals that are allegedly released when pans are heated. Dupont, the maker of Teflon®, says the material is safe.

With the recent case settlements, pending class action lawsuits in Iowa (USA) related to potential human poisonings from fluorinated non-stick cooktops, and with the information now developed and shared during peer review, the watchdog groups environmental and regulatory officials alike. their reviews and investigations into the widespread use of perfluorochemicals in many industries with no immediate indication of possible results. It should be noted that the use of perfluorochemicals as anti-drip agents and flame retardants or the use of fluorinated polymers such as PVDF or FEP has not been affected by any of the research to this point. However, since the use of perfluorochemicals is permitted within the “halogen-free” material guidelines, the reformulation of polymeric materials to eliminate the use of these analyzed materials offers a significant opportunity from a technology development point of view to provide truly “no halogens”. materials for the market.

JMME, Inc., Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved

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