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Basic Theories of Motivation – A Bird’s Eye View
It is important to understand the principles of motivation because they form the basis of modern science and have led to the idea of new work. This age-old theory is still used by managers working in the old and traditional sectors of business and expands even in the middle modern setting. They have stood the test of time because of their ease of understanding and intuitive logic. One of the pioneers of the theories that should be seen is the reference to an experiment given by Robert Owen who is a man. He is the owner of a textile company in Scotland. Owen is as involved with workers as with machines. Both need to be looked after and cared for in order to do a good job. He introduces housing and company stores to his employees in the area of the workplace. This kind of service was considered revolutionary during the early 19th century when the workers were working in the worst and worst conditions.
o “Carrot and Stick Approach” by Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham developed his ideas about workers in the early years of the Industrial Revolution around 1800. His people wanted self-interest and all their actions were directed for efforts to improve happiness and reduce pain. He found that a large reward or the threat of punishment or penalty would only induce the employee to complete his work. The thought of using it from the example of the story of the donkey that makes him work you even put carrots in his mouth or hit him with a stick on his back.
Inducements in some form of ‘carrot’ such as income, better pay package, encourage employees to exert effort during punishment in the form of ‘stick’ such as fear unemployment, demotions or regression of benefits also force workers to do.
o “The Five Needs” by Abraham Maslow:
Maslow found that all people are governed by a hierarchy of five needs which are
1. The needs of the body that are intended to satisfy its basic needs such as hunger, thirst, sex, shelter and so on.
2. Safety or security must protect him physically and emotionally.
3. Social needs that people seek friends, groups to satisfy their needs of creativity, interests, relationships and needs from others.
4. Respecting the needs that begin to apply when people have their needs of satisfaction. Then they want to maintain respect and seek to achieve authority, power, and fame in their own eyes and in the eyes of others. The need for respect is of two types. Internal esteem calls for factors such as autonomy, efficiency, self-respect and other esteem factors such as care, recognition.
5. Self-Actualization which is the need to do what one has the ability to do. It is the realization of real resources and real value and the pursuit of self-fulfillment.
Satisfaction of physical and safety needs fall under the category of lower needs while social, esteem and personal needs follow the higher needs. .
Although Maslow’s theory is intriguing and easy to understand however it finds no support in empirical research. Besides he said that the lower orders should be satisfied first before moving up the hierarchy. The theory calls for a strict hierarchy.
Regarding employee motivation, managers must identify the level of hierarchy that the employee currently holds and try to meet the needs or needs above This is based on the needs of the hierarchy.
o Theory X and Theory Y by Douglas McGregor:
McGregor sees leaders in organizations behaving with employees based on their preconceived notions of human nature. Group ‘X’ managers think that the workers are in a negative position while category “Y” people view human condition in a positive way.
Characteristics of ‘X’ Managers:
1. They think that workers are lazy and will work when they have time.
2. They must be the main source of coercion, coercion or threats of serious influence to make them realize the benefits.
3. They have a tendency to distance themselves from responsibility and will seek advice where appropriate.
4. Employees prioritize their own security over other things and have little thought.
Characteristics of ‘Y’ Leaders
1. ‘Y’ Managers view employees as hardworking and think of work as a game or vacation.
2. They exercise self-control and self-control if they are committed to these goals.
3. They accept responsibility and strive to solve all problems in the organization.
o ‘Motivation-Hygiene Theory’ by Frederick Herzberg:
The theory states that factors such as achievement, recognition, and the content of good work, challenging work, advancement and growth are some of the important factors in motivation the employee to put more effort into his work. These conditions in the job support.
However according to Herzberg the opposite of satisfaction is not always dissatisfaction, in the context of the organization it is not satisfaction and dissatisfaction of dissatisfaction is not grievances and these are seen as having no role in employee motivation.
Factors such as company policies, supervision, management, salary when used make employees dissatisfied. When these grievances are removed they have no effect on employee satisfaction. It’s just going to be more frustrating. Eliminating grievances only placates and brings peace to the situation.
However, this remains to be researched because it does not have a good relationship between productivity and motivation. What is being talked about is satisfaction.
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