How Do You Short Cite A Secondary Source Chicago Style Greek Plants – Phrygana and Garrigue

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Greek Plants – Phrygana and Garrigue

The actions of man, who burned and destroyed the ancient forests that once fringed the Mediterranean basin, have irreparably damaged the environment in the history of history. Deforestation, carried out in order to create space for agriculture and pastures, leads to successful desertification and impoverishment of the soil, which, left exposed, is also damaged by erosion. In such situations, the growth of arboreal species will not improve, while what will likely be created are new forms of plants with fewer plants and plants that replace the wood. The degradation of the Mediterranean maquis resulted in a variety of vegetation called garrigue (from Provencal garigue), dominated by shrubs, which are discontinuous and with wide open areas with outcropping rocks, and to the phrygana, most of the arid station. .

Phrygana and garrigue meet near the sea and inland, and the plants that produce each vary according to substrate, altitude, and phytogeographical area. It is not always easy to distinguish between the two types of plants, which are often mixed together slowly into one, creating a middle line often made of animals that belong to both address.

The plants that make up these phytocenoses show the most adaptations to the conditions of aridity, such as sclerophylly, which allows limiting water from evaporation and transpiration, and microphylly, which is usually accompanied by spines cords and scents that affect animals. Despite the difficult lifestyle, these areas boast a wide variety of flora, mostly annual herbs that bloom in the spring and die in the summer, or bulbous plants that succeed in flowering and survive thanks to their subterranean bacteria. Among the families of plants most of the garrigues and phrygana are Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Compositae, Liliaceae, and Orchidaceae. Although most of the shrubby plants and suffruticose plants of the Mediterranean region are of secondary origin (that is, the result of anthropic decision on the old forests), there are also cases specifically that these formations represent the highest level of evolution of local plants. . Their destruction leads to the creation of dry grasses from Graminaceae and maintained in this state by grazing.

The phrygana, or spiny garrigue, is a semi-natural biocenosis; that is, one created by spontaneous organisms that develop thanks to grazing and fire. It is composed of low, hemispherical, densely and intricately branched shrubs that grow to a maximum height of 50 cm. The leaves are drought- and graze-resistant and are mostly summer-deciduous. Wide open, sunny places, with exposed rocks, isolated plants, especially in very dry areas near the coast. During the summer, often expand the plants of the plants that populate the dry habitat, giving the plants a characteristic “burn” quality. This landscape, similar to that of the country that overlooks the sea, is a place of Community interest. The best features of its plants are Euphorbia acanthothamnos, Genista acanthoclada, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Pistacia lentiscus, many types of sages and rockroses, herbaceous plants also found in the garrigues, and many types of orchids. The abandoned areas are free from vegetation mainly populated by bulbous plants such as Gynandriris sisyrinchium, and by other herbaceous species with beautiful flowers, like Ranunculus asiaticus.

The garrigue is a continuous vegetation formation with a wide open area of ​​vegetation; It is characterized by evergreen shrubs and subshrubs that grow to a maximum height of 1m and are generally spiny and graze resistant. In the coastal garrigues, which are found in the borders of the coastal vegetation formations and areas more protected from the action of the sea, we find many species of genus Helichrysum, usually H. italicum. It is common with Anthyllis hermanniae and from many different rocks, such as Cistus monspeliensis, C. salviifohus, and C. incanus subsp. creticus, which are brown with their flowers ranging in color from white to pink and yellow.

Different garrigue formations are dominated by different plants, for example Euphorbia acanthoclada, Phlomis fruticosa, or Salvia triloba. Together with the stands of Daphne sericea and Lavandula stoechas, these are habitats of Community interest and therefore require special conservation measures, as in fact all the plants on in the coast where there are associations of plants mentioned above.

Annual and bulbous plants in the open areas of the garrigue. All these plants flower early, usually during the spring rains, when the temperature starts to rise above the winter average. These meadows are home to many species of short-lived animals that nevertheless give their colorful help to celebrate the spring season: here are fragrant and many plants, well as the showy orchids of the genera Ophrys and Orchis.

Because of the unique morphology of the flowers of orchids, we have preferred to first describe the same species with a brief introduction to the family and especially to the genera Ophrys, Orchis, and Serapias.

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