How Do You Format Bibliography For Kindle Book Chicago Style Burma’s Famous Padamya Nga Mauk

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Burma’s Famous Padamya Nga Mauk

Burma tus naas ej Padamya Nga Mauk ploj mus nyob rau hmo ntuj ntawm 29 Kaum ib hlis mus rau 30 Kaum ib hlis 1885, thaum tom qab cov British tau nyob rau sab qaum teb Burma, lub Burmese huab tais Thibaw, nws tus thawj poj huab tais Supaylat thiab cov huab tais cov tub qhe tab tom pib lawv txoj kev mus rau exile (thawj rau. Rangoon, ces mus rau Madras / Is Nrias teb thiab, thaum kawg, Ratnagiri / Is Nrias teb) thiab cov khoom muaj nqis vaj ntxwv tau raug xa mus rau British Colonel Sladen.

Muaj ntau cov lus piav qhia txog Nga Mauk qhov kev zoo nkauj thiab ci ntsa iab, qhov no yog ib qho ntawm lawv. Thaum muab tso rau ntawm ib lub velvet npog pedestal Nga Mauk ci zoo li lub teeb ci, thaum muab tso rau hauv ib khob mis nyuj, cov xim ntawm cov mis nyuj hloov liab thiab thaum tuav ntawm tes, ib tug liab kua liab tshwm los ntawm cov ntiv tes poob. poob. Wow, uas yog ib yam dab tsi, puas yog?

Tam sim no koj yeej xav tias yog txhua yam zoo thiab zoo, Markus, tab sis dab tsi yog los yog Burma lub npe nrov Padamya Nga Mauk? Kuv cov lus teb luv luv yog Nga Mauk yog los yog muaj koob muaj npe ruby. Lub ruby ​​loj, xim thiab ci ntsa iab tsis tau pom dua, tsis muaj kev sib tw thiab raws li nws tau hais tias, ” Tsim nyog lub nceeg vaj .”

Nws yog lub pov haum tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm Burmese Crown Jewels. Nga Mauk tau muab tso rau hauv ib lub nplhaib ntawm cov kub dawb huv thiab ua tib zoo khaws cia rau hauv cov khoom muaj nqis los ntawm Burmese vaj ntxwv ntawm Konbaung Dynasty los ntawm huab tais Bodawpaya, tus huab tais thib 6 ntawm Konbaung (kaum xyoo 1782 txog 1819) rau huab tais Thibaw, tus huab tais Konbaung kawg (kaum xyoo 1878. rau xyoo 1885), yuav tsum hnav tsuas yog thaum lub sijhawm tshwj xeeb. Yog li, tam sim no koj paub tias Padamya Nga Mauk yog lossis ruby. Vim li cas kuv pheej hais tias, “Yog los yog?” Lo lus teb yog kuv ua qhov no rau qhov yooj yim uas tsuas yog tus neeg uas nyiag Nga Mauk tsis muaj leej twg paub tias Nga Mauk, qhov tshwj xeeb zoo nkauj thiab muaj txiaj ntsig ruby ​​tseem muaj. Cov ntsiab lus ntxiv ntawm qhov no kuv yuav muab rau koj hauv qhov kawg ntawm tsab xov xwm.

Txawm li cas los xij, tsab xov xwm no tsis tshua muaj hais txog rubies tawm tsam keeb kwm ntawm geology, gemology, mineralogy thiab chemistry (dab tsi yuav tho txawv) raws li nws yog hais txog rubies (ob leeg hauv dab neeg thiab kev muaj tiag) txuas nrog Burma, feem ntau, thiab zaj dab neeg uas. qhov iab liam uas muaj nqi tshaj plaws ruby ​​puas tau pom tau qhia, tshwj xeeb.

Raws li rau cov lus piav qhia dav dav ntawm dab tsi ruby ​​yog kuv tsis xav siv sijhawm ntau thiab kaw kuv tus kheej rau hauv qab no. Lub ruby ​​yog ib qho ntawm plaub cov zaub mov uas tsim los ntawm tsev neeg ntawm cov pob zeb muaj txiaj ntsig suav nrog pob zeb diamond, ruby, sapphire thiab emerald. Nws yog ib qho siv lead ua ntawm cov ntxhia ntau yam thiab muaj cov ntxhia corundum (aluminium oxide) nrog chromium. Thiab nws yog chromium uas muab lub ruby ​​nws lub npe. Lub npe ruby ​​muaj nws cov hauv paus hauv Latin lo lus ‘ruber’ txhais tau tias liab. Cov xim ntawm rubies txawv ntawm liab mus rau xim liab thiab yog cov qauv tseem ceeb (ua raws li qhov tseeb, txiav thiab carat) uas yog txiav txim siab tus nqi. Nrog ‘9’ ntawm Mohs nplai lub ruby ​​siv qhov chaw thib ob tom qab lub pob zeb diamond uas yog nrog ’10’ cov ntxhia nyuaj tshaj plaws ntawm qhov ntsuas no.

Txij li thaum lub sijhawm sau ntawv no txog 1.000 xyoo yog qhov uas tam sim no hu ua Burma (txij li xyoo 1989 kuj tseem Myanmar) nto moo raws li lub hauv paus ntawm rubies ntawm cov khoom zoo tshaj plaws tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov xim los ntawm tsis muaj lwm lub teb chaws uas rubies mined. Thaum kuv hais Burma raws li kuv nyuam qhuav ua qhov no tsis yog qhov tseeb vim qhov no yuav yooj yim tsim qhov kev xav tias rubies pom thoob plaws tebchaws Burma, uas tsis muaj tseeb.

Qhov chaw uas lub ntiaj teb no muaj nuj nqis tshaj rubies tau pom nyob rau qee qhov 313 mais / 500 mais sab qaum teb ntawm Yangon, yav tas los Rangoon, thiab 125 mais / 200 mais qaum teb sab hnub tuaj ntawm Mandalay; nws lub npe, Moog. Nws tseem yog hu ua ‘The Valley of Rubies’ thiab Mogok Stone Tract.

Lub nroog Mogok nyob ntawm 4.000 feet / 1.200 meters saum toj no hiav txwv. Nws muaj nyob rau ntawm nws qhov chaw ib lub pas dej thiab yog surrounded los ntawm roob. Plaub qhov siab tshaj plaws yog nyob nruab nrab ntawm 5.600 feet / 1.700 meters thiab 7.500 feet / 2.300 meters siab thiab huab cua ntawm no txias. Qhov chaw tsim khoom nto moo lub pov haum yog ua los ntawm ntau lub hav thiab lawv lub zos thiab tag nrho cov pej xeem ntawm lub hav tau hais tias muaj txog 550,000. Mogok is the site where also Nga Mauk, The Royal Ruby, has allegedly found.

Tseem muaj lwm cov rubies nto moo los ntawm lub pov haum nplua nuj Mogok tau nyob rau hauv cov khoom muaj nqis muaj koob muaj npe tab sis tsis muaj ib tus tuaj ze rau Nga Mauk qhov zoo thiab tus nqi. Lwm cov rubies no yog Hlaw Ka Tin Galay ruby ​​20 rati / 18 carat, Hlaw Ka Tin Gyi ruby ​​40 rati / 36 carat thiab Sin Ma Taw ruby ​​40 rati / 36 carat, tsuas yog hais txog qhov loj tshaj ntawm lawv. Nga Mauk tau hais tias muaj qhov loj ntawm Betel txiv ntoo thiab qhov hnyav ntawm 98 rati / 88 carat whereas nws ‘tus kwv ntxaib’ Kalahphyan muaj qhov hnyav ntawm 82 rati / 74 carat. Ntxiv rau Kalahphyan ob peb kab ntxiv rau hauv kab lus.

Muaj ob peb zaj dab neeg hais txog Nga Mauk nyob rau hauv ib tug ntau unbelievable tshaj lwm yam tshwj xeeb tshaj yog raws li qhov hnyav ntawm Nga Mauk thiab cov keeb kwm thaum ntxov ntawm uncut ruby ​​muaj kev txhawj xeeb. Txhua tus Burmese yuav txaus siab qhia rau koj txog nws qhov feem ntau exaggerated version. Qee qhov kev tsis sib haum xeeb thiab kev hloov pauv hauv cov dab neeg no cuam tshuam txog tus neeg nrhiav, nws txoj haujlwm thiab yuav ua li cas Nga Mauk tau pom, lwm tus txog cov naj npawb ntawm cov khoom uas tsis tau txiav ruby ​​tau tawg, lub sijhawm twg cov khoom raug txiav, thiab qhov twg txiav tau siv. . Tseem muaj lwm qhov tsis sib xws muaj feem cuam tshuam txog keeb kwm ntawm tus kheej cov pob zeb, tus huab tais uas kav thaum lub sij hawm ruby ​​tau pom thiab, thaum kawg, tus neeg uas tau nyiag Nga Mauk. Koj pom, Nga Mauk yog dhau los ntawm kev paub tsis meej txij thaum pib mus txog thaum kawg, ruby ​​ploj mus. Thiab txawm tias tom qab kawg nws tseem yog qhov paub tsis meej vim tias (tsuas yog tus tub sab lossis tus tswv tam sim no) tsis muaj leej twg paub tias Nga Mauk nyob qhov twg thiab muaj dab tsi tshwm sim tom qab nws ploj mus. Muaj tseeb tiag, Nga Mauk nyob qhov twg. Nws puas yuav rov tshwm sim ib hnub? Puas yuav ploj mus ib txhis?

Nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov dab neeg ntawm Nga Mauk muaj ntau yam obscurities thiab inconsistencies uas kuv yuav xav tsis thoob tias Nga Mauk puas tau muaj, yuav tsis muaj ib co pov thawj uas ntseeg tau hais tias lawv tau pom thiab txawm kov lub ruby. Qhov no txhais tau tias qhov tseem ceeb uas Nga Mauk tau ua (lossis ua) muaj nyob, nws yog (lossis) txiav thiab muaj nuj nqis heev thiab cov ruby ​​ploj thaum hmo ntuj ntawm 29 Kaum Ib Hlis mus rau 30 Kaum Ib Hlis 1885. Cov no yog qhov tseeb thiab txhua yam yog. zoo nkauj heev qhib rau speculation rau tsis muaj pov thawj ntawm dab tsi yog sau thiab hais txog Nga Mauk. Puas yog ob peb tus huab tais Burmese nyiag nws? Puas yog cov tswv cuab ntawm tsev neeg muaj koob muaj npe nyiag nws? Puas yog cov tswv cuab qib siab ntawm lub tsev hais plaub Burmese tau nyiag nws? Puas yog Colonel Sladen nyiag nws? Puas yog lwm tus tub ceev xwm hauv tebchaws Askiv tau nyiag nws?

Kuv tau txheeb xyuas cov dab neeg sib txawv (ntau dua cov lus hais meej meej) thiab muab piv rau ib qho rau lwm tus hauv kev siv zog kom ze tshaj plaws li qhov ua tau rau qhov tshwm sim thiab yuav ua li cas. Ntawm no tam sim no los, thaum kawg, uas (abridged) version ntawm zaj dab neeg ntawm Nga Mauk, zoo heev Burmese ruby, uas kuv xav tias yog qhov tsawg tshaj plaws tsis muaj tseeb ntawm tag nrho cov ntawm lawv. Kuv paub tag nrho qhov tseeb tias txawm tias zaj dab neeg no muaj qee qhov tsis meej thiab tsis sib haum. Kuv tsis tuaj yeem hais kom paub tseeb tias qhov twg yog qhov tseeb thiab qhov tsis yog; koj yuav tsum ncav cuag koj tus kheej cov kev txiav txim siab ntawm qhov teeb meem no.

Zaj dab neeg no pib nrog tus neeg nrhiav lub pob zeb ib yam li U Nga Mauk (Mr. Nga Mauk) los ntawm Laungzin ze Kyatpyin tom qab uas lub ruby ​​tau muab lub npe. Thaum Nga Maung pom lub pob zeb uas tau hais tias thawj zaug hnyav 620 rati / 560 carats nws tau paub tam sim ntawd tias nws yog ruby ​​ntawm qhov zoo tshaj plaws thiab tus nqi. Feem ntau, qhov ntawd yuav yog vim li cas thiaj li muaj kev zoo siab heev tab sis muaj ib qho teeb meem loj thiab qhov ntawd yog txoj cai lij choj raws li lub pov haum uas siab tshaj qhov loj thiab tus nqi tau txais los ntawm huab tais thiab tsis raug tso cai khaws cia rau hauv ntiag tug. los yog muag. Cov uas tsis ua raws li tsab cai no nruj me ntsis raug hem nrog kev rau txim hnyav tshaj plaws. Pom tseeb, Nga Mauk tsis kam txais kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev khaws thiab / lossis muag tag nrho pob zeb los yog nws tsis kam muab pob zeb tag nrho rau vaj ntxwv. Txoj kev daws teeb meem zoo tshaj plaws rau qhov teeb meem no yog muab ib feem ntawm ruby ​​rau vaj ntxwv thiab muag lwm qhov txhawm rau txhawm rau txhim kho nws thiab nws tsev neeg cov nyiaj txiag zoo; thiab nws ua.

Siv lub ntuj tawg nyob rau hauv lub pob zeb uncutting nws kom zoo dua nws faib lub pob zeb mus rau hauv ib tug loj thiab ib feem me me. Tom qab ntawd nws muab qhov loj dua uas tom qab ntawd los ua ‘Nga Mauk Ruby’ rau vajntxwv Bodawpaya, thaum muag qhov me me uas tom qab ntawd dhau los ua ‘Kalahphyan Ruby’ rau Calcutta/India. Yog tias qhov no yuav yog qhov kawg ntawm zaj dab neeg no nws yuav tau txais txiaj ntsig zoo vim tias ob tog koom nrog (tus huab tais thiab Nga Mauk) tau txais txiaj ntsig zoo los ntawm ruby. Tab sis hmoov tsis txog Nga Mauk qhov no tsis yog txoj kev uas nws tig tawm. Cas vajntxwv Bodawpaya kawm paub tias Nga Mauk tau sim dag nws thiab hais kom tsis yog Nga Mauk thiab nws tsev neeg nkaus xwb tab sis tag nrho cov pejxeem ntawm nws lub zos yuav tsum muab hlawv ciaj sia. Qhov no tau ua tiav tab sis yog hmoov zoo Nga Mauk tus poj niam Daw Nann zoo li tau dim ntawm kev tua. Ntawm no yog Daw Nann lus dab neeg (lwm zaj dab neeg) rau hauv daim duab.

Raws li cov lus dab neeg hais tias Daw Nann tau nyob deb ntawm tsev mus sau ntoo hluav taws thaum nws tsev neeg thiab lwm tus neeg hauv zos raug ntes thiab muab tua. Cov lus dab neeg hais ntxiv tias saib saum toj ntawm lub roob ze qhov kev tua tau ua rau nws lub siab tawg ua ob daim ib yam li Nga Mauk ruby ​​tau tawg ua ob daim. Lub roob ntawd hu ua ‘Daw Nann Gyi Taung’, lub ntsiab lus ‘lub roob uas Mrs. Nann ntsia’.

Vajntxwv kuj tau hais kom ib co ntawm nws cov neeg sawv cev mus rau Is Nrias teb thiab nqa ob feem ntawm ruby ​​rov qab rau nws. Lub luag haujlwm no tau ua tiav thiab lub pov haum rov qab los kuj yog ib feem ntawm cov khoom muaj nqis vaj ntxwv. Lub ruby ​​raug txiav thiab vaj ntxwv muab nws lub npe ‘Kalahphyan Ruby’, txhais tau tias ‘lub ruby ​​uas tuaj ntawm thaj av Kalas’.

Tam sim no peb los txog rau ntu kawg ntawm Padamya Nga Mauk zaj dab neeg: ruby ​​ploj lawm. Thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 28, 1885 cov tub rog Askiv tau ntes Mandalay thiab ncig Mandalay Palace nrog Royal City. Colonel Sladen uas nrog cov tub rog Askiv ua nom ua tswv tau raug xa los ntawm General Prendergast mus rau hauv Palace los tham nrog huab tais Thibaw cov teeb meem ntawm kev tsis txaus siab kom xaus kev tsov rog thib 3 Anglo-Burmese. Thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 29, 1885, Vaj Ntxwv Thibaw tau lees paub nws lub suab swb los ntawm British Army los ntawm kev hais lus rau British General Prendergast. Tom qab ntawd Colonel Sladen thiab lwm tus tub ceev xwm loj tau mus rau Mandalay Palace tus kheej saib xyuas kev npaj rau tus huab tais Burmese Thibaw, nws tus poj huab tais Supaylat thiab cov tub ceev xwm raug xa mus rau kev khiav tawm thaum sawv ntxov. Nyob rau hauv lub palace Colonel Sladen tau siv lub sijhawm los saib Nga Mauk thiab muab nws liam tias nws tsis kam rov qab mus rau poj huab tais tus poj niam ntawm kev hwm, Chuntaung Princess Thu Thiri Sanda Wadi. Zaum kawg uas Nga Mauk tau pom tiag tiag. Tom qab ntawd, thaum huab tais thiab poj huab tais tab tom yuav nce lub nkoj uas yuav coj lawv mus rau Rangoon, Colonel Sladen rov qab los thiab thov kom Nga Mauk yog (ua ke nrog lwm cov vaj ntxwv vaj ntxwv) muab rau nws kom nyab xeeb. Nws tau muab lub thawv uas ruby ​​tau khaws cia tab sis tsis muaj leej twg pom lub pob zeb nws tus kheej, tsuas yog lub thawv xwb. Tej zaum Sladen txheeb xyuas seb lub ruby ​​puas nyob hauv lub thawv, tej zaum nws tsis tau.

Tom qab uas yav tas los tus huab tais Burmese Thibaw tau tuaj txog hauv Ratnagiri thaum lub Plaub Hlis 1886, nws tau ceeb toom rau British Political Officer H. Fanshaw ntawm Nga Mauk thiab lwm lub pov haum huab tais uas nws tau muab rau Colonel Sladen thiab thov kom lawv rov qab los rau nws. Thaum lub Kaum Ib Hlis Ntuj xyoo 1886 lub Chaw Lis Haujlwm Hauv Tebchaws Is Nrias teb teb tias ruby ​​nrog lub npe Nga Mauk nrhiav tsis tau. Yav tas los tus huab tais Burmese Thibaw tsis tso cai rau qhov no mus nyob ntsiag to thiab thaum lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1886 kev tshawb nrhiav hauv Nga Mauk rooj plaub pib.

Tus Thawj Kav Tebchaws Sir Charles Bernard tau muab txoj haujlwm los tshawb xyuas qhov xwm txheej rau Tus Thawj Kav Tebchaws Thirkell White hauv Mandalay. Txij thaum ntawd los txog rau thaum Colonel Sladen tuag thaum Lub Ib Hlis 4, 1890, txhua tus neeg koom nrog hauv rooj plaub no xws li General Prendergast, Colonel Sladen, Colonel Sladen tus neeg txhais lus Nicholas, Tus Thawj Tub Ceev Xwm Captain Budgin, Tus Thawj Coj Lambert, Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Ruaj Ntseg. cov khoom, ntau tus tub ceev xwm ntawm British tub rog, ntau tus tswv cuab ntawm tsev neeg muaj koob muaj npe, Thibaw tus qub tub lag luam U Hla Bu, Thibaw tus qub Minister of the Royal Treasury, Shwe Taik Wun, thiab lwm yam. tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv chav kawm ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav.

Txhawm rau txiav ib zaj dab neeg luv luv, txhua yam kev ua ub no ntawm kev nrhiav Nga Mauk tsis muaj txiaj ntsig thiab nws txoj kev ploj mus thiab qhov chaw nyob tseem yog qhov tsis paub.

Kuv vam tias koj tau pom kuv ‘Padamya Nga Mauk tsab xov xwm’ ​​qhia thiab lom zem.

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