How Do You Do In Text Citations In Chicago Style PF Tosi’s "Observations on the Florid Song" (1723)

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PF Tosi’s "Observations on the Florid Song" (1723)

“This is the teaching of the school of the masters which, disdainfully, many middle-class singers now call the ancients. Carefully look at its rules, examine its rules Strictly and, if not blind, you will see that this school teaches singing in voice. work in tempo, make appropriate embellishments, write, and learn delicate, sensitive singing, in which alone good taste and judgment prevail. Compare this school with yours, and if you must find an area where there is no doctrine to teach you, taken from the rest of Modernity.” Pier Francesco Tosi, Observations on the Florida Song, p. 78.

The foundation of the bel canto style was laid during the creation of opera and monody solo singing in the 16th century. As a new art form developed, virtuoso singers appeared around the world with incredible strength, variety and beauty. Mostly castrati, but also including all types of voices, the singers trained well to become the first rock stars in the world, with influence, income and lifestyle to match.

The ideas of bel canto singers (and most of the singers themselves) were created exclusively by the patrons and private music of Italy. The training and techniques they used were passed down orally from master to student for many generations with little writing. Pier Francesco Tosi was the first to publish (in 1723) a hymn of length and detail. It became an important and beautiful model for many generations of singers who came after, from Mancini in 1777 to Richard Miller and Clifton Ware today. Within 40 years, Tosi’s Opinioni de’ cantori antichi, e moderni, o sieno osservazioni sopra il canto figurato had been translated into English, German and French.

A castrato himself, in writing Opinioni, Tosi draws from his own bel canto musical training as a boy in Italy (mainly Milan), with He has extensive experience as a singer and voice teacher. He also showed his performance and taste in ornamentation by many singers whose work he saw, including “Il Cortnoa,” “La Santini,” “Sifacio,” Rivani and especially than Pistocchi. While his sermons were directed at and exposed the unfairness of the male voice, Tosi occasionally referred to singers of other genres indicating that he believed all singers were trained the same thing.

From Tosi’s writings we see the irony that bel canto training focuses on aural aesthetics with almost no physiological training. Contrary to the many process-based singing methods beginning with Garcia’s Traité (1840) which focused on breathing, abdominal support, throat and head resonance, and laryngeal and pharyngeal positioning, “old house learning Italian” method is the result, focus on intonation, tone and success, tasteful use of ornamentation. Indeed, part of Tosi’s physical advice to the singer is: “do not suffer the Scholar to hold the Musick-Paper, in Singing, before his face,” (p. 29) “comp[e] [the mouth] in a way […] happy for a smile” (p. 12) and “The Voice of the Scholar […]should always come clean and clear, not passed thro’ the nose, or choked in the throat; which are the two most dangerous things in a singer. song, rather than part of the way.

Thoughts are often directed to the singing teacher, telling them how they should teach their children. It also includes a chapter and several articles about future professional singers with advice on good taste, beauty, performance and the life and business of singing. . Tosi mentions the long-term needs of students training in reading and writing, singing and composition, as well as grammar, speech, social and acting. All the standard ornaments of the period are clearly stated: appoggiatura, messa di voce, eight trills, passaggi (divisions), and portamento. Tosi also dedicates a chapter to recitative and aria singing, declaring throughout the necessity of improvising his own grace and distribution of space in the performance.

There are some teachings of Tosi’s in his Thoughts that have been particularly interesting to singers and scholars over the years. Tosi clearly shows the unity and combination of chest and head registration, (p. 11) the first recording of speech to do so. While earlier writers such as Zacconi (Practica di Musica, 1592, ch. 2) and Caccini (Le nuove musiche, 1602, intro.) said that singers should only sing in their “natural voice,” Tosi went as far as to say. “Yes [the chest and head register] Do not unite perfectly, the Voice will be of different registers, and will lose its beauty. ” (p. 11) Tosi’s is also the first to note the support of the use of rubato as a beauty. who accidentally sings out of tempo or self-aggrandizingly holds out notes as in in today’s fermata, he encourages “[t]he steals the time […]if he does Restitution with Ingenuity “; meaning, put the singer catches back to the accompaniment, let them to tempo. (p. 67)

Another interesting point of Thoughts is Tosi’s discussion of intonation and sol-fa-ing. At a time when a variety of behaviors were used by keyboards, strings and even singers, Tosi complained that “only some professors, today’s thinking is very bad.” (p. 9) He mentions the difference between “Semitone Major and Minor” (or a major and a minor) that he “[d]If the thought cannot be realized by the Organ or the Harpsichord, if the Elements are not separated.” (p. 9) Therefore, he warns that “if the Soprano will sing D sharp, well as E flat, good ears will see. He left Tune, because of this last increase. “(p. 10) Tosi’s remedy for poor intonation is to start the young singer on solfege, using the traditional gamut created by Guido. When both the Guidonian hexachord system and meantone temperament have become. antiquated at the time Tosi wrote his treatise, however insisted on their use.

Thoughts In fact it was a flood for much more than the early Baroque musical theory and treatment. Tosi spends a lot of time in his praise of the “primitive” cantabile (or “Pathetick,” as the old translator puts it) style of his generation, around the 18th century. He could not understand why the “type” moved to the fast, very beautiful “Allegro” style popular at the time of his writing, which he lumps with insufficiently trained singers, no Ignorance of Church standards and “still” virtuosic expression as the great sin of “today” music. Being a pragmatist, however, he still encourages “to be useful to the expert, who wants to be an expert in both.” (page 40)

Pier Francesco Tosi was born in Cesena, Italy in 1653 or 1654. There is disagreement among sources as to whether he was the son of composer Giuseppe Felice Tosi. He was castrated before puberty to preserve his high voice. While it is not known where he received his musical education, he sang at the cathedral in Rome from 1676 to 1677 and at the Milan cathedral from 1681 to 1685, when he was released for “misconduct.” Later, he made his debut in the opera of Reggio nell’Emilia in 1687 (in Varischino’s Odoacre) and followed the period in Genoa. In 1693 Tosi moved to London where he led students to sing and sing in public concerts every week. In 1701 he entered the service of the Austrian Emperor Joseph I and Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, for whom he served as a musician and diplomat, traveling until 1723. In 1724 he returned to London with the work of Handel, where he returned. teaches and is a member of the Academy of Ancient Music. He received holy orders some time before his death in Faenza, Italy in 1732. In addition to being a well-known soprano (of the cantabile style, singing mostly chamber music) and the voice teacher, Tosi is a writer of several arias and cantatas. (Biographical information on “Tosi, Pier Francsco,” New Grove Dictionary of Opera.)

John Ernest Galliard (1666-1747), English translator of Thoughts, was a composer and oboist in London, played an important part in the music of the city in the first half of the 18th century. He is a founder-member of the Royal Society of Musicians and the Academy of Ancient Music, the latter of which Tosi also sits. Due to the quality of the translation and his long personal acquaintance with the author, Galliard’s translation and commentary on Tosi’s Opinioni (published in 1742 as Opinions on Florid Song) has long been considered the good and the permission. (Biographical information from “Galliard, John Ernest,” New Grove Dictionary of Opera.)

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